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Of those on treatment, 93% were virally suppressed.

Overall, this equates to 52% of all people living with HIV in Ukraine on treatment and 48% being virally suppressed.6 Ukraine’s HIV epidemic is mixed, with around 1% of the general population living with HIV and significantly higher HIV prevalence among certain population groups.

New HIV infections among adult women have almost tripled in 12 years, from 1,814 in 2005 to 5,100 in 2017.26 As a result, 46% of adults living with HIV in Ukraine in 2017 were female, the vast majority of whom had become infected through sexual transmission.27 28 In 2016, there were an estimated 80,100 female sex workers in Ukraine, with an HIV prevalence of 5.2%.29 Prevalence differs greatly between areas, and in 2012 was estimated to be as high as 38.2% in Donetsk and 23.7% in Kyiv.30 In 2017, 58% of sex workers living with HIV were aware of their status and 29% were on ART.31 A study carried out in Ukraine in 2011 found HIV prevalence among female sex workers who inject drugs to be 43%, compared to 8.5% among female sex workers who did not inject drugs, which was the estimated prevalence of this population at the time.32 A basic package of services is available for female sex workers through a network of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) across all regions of Ukraine, which combines prevention of HIV with prevention of other sexually transmitted infections (STIs).33 In 2017, 48% of sex workers were estimated to have access to HIV prevention services.34 Despite this relatively low coverage in 2017, 93% of female sex workers reported using condoms with clients.35 36 Modelling estimates suggest that addressing the routine physical and sexual violence faced by sex workers at the hands of clients, police and other members of society in Ukraine would lead to a reduction of approximately 25% in HIV infections among this population.37 Recent estimates suggest that there are around 181,000 men who have sex with men (sometimes referred to as MSM) in Ukraine.38 39 Because of the way data are collected in Ukraine, transgender women are included in this population group.

When the epidemic first began in Ukraine, it mainly affected people – predominantly men – who inject drugs.

But since 2008, sexual transmission of HIV has been driving the epidemic, with sexual partners of people from key populations particularly at risk, who may then transmit to other sexual partners.7 It is now estimated that around 73% of new transmissions are the result of sexual transmission.8 Government and civil society have generally been proactive in responding to HIV and there has been some success in rolling out antiretroviral treatment (ART) and harm reduction programmes.

AIDS-related deaths have fallen from 14,000 in 2010 to 6,100 in 2019.2 Annual new HIV infections in Ukraine have risen from 9,500 in 2010 to 12,000 in 2018.3 Although the infection rate began slowing again in 2014, suggesting prevention measures were having some effect, it appears to have stalled.4 It is also worth noting that the 2017 figure does not include new infections in the non-government controlled areas of Donetsk and Luhansk.5 In 2017, Ukraine committed to the UNAIDS 90-90-90 Fast-Track targets.

Progress as of the end of 2018 was that 71% of people living with HIV were aware of their status, of whom 73% were on treatment.

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Explore this page to find out more about people most affected by HIV, testing and counselling, prevention programmes, antiretroviral treatment availability, civil society's role, HIV and TB co-infection, barriers to the response, funding and the future of HIV in Ukraine.

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