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Some decades later, isotopes were used also in other fields, e.g. In 1943, Georges de Hevesy was awarded a Nobel Prize for his isotopic methods to trace chemical reactions and processes in the human body.
Useful types of mass spectrometers are briefly described, and the need for reliable standards as well as accurate measurements and corrections is stressed.
In future, further chemical elements may be utilized for isotope studies in heritage science, and possible candidates are discussed.
The paper may in particular be valuable to readers less acquainted with the use of isotopic measurements.
Most chemical elements in nature exist with two or more isotopes.
The various isotopes of each element have the same number of protons (Z), but this is not true for the number of neutrons (N) or the mass (M = Z N).